Amiri Baraka and Cultural Nationalism

LeRoi Jones, later to become Amiri Baraka, returned to Newark in 1965. Baraka had spent the previous decade as part of the literary and artistic world of New York City and beyond. One of the best-known and most influential writers of the Black Arts Movement, the cultural and artistic wing of the Black Power Movement, the Black Arts Movement sought to bring Black art to the public through theatrical and literary performances. Jones also took an interest in the emerging network of organizations and leaders theorizing ideas about black liberation through the lens of Black Power. Jones was particularly inspired by the politics and philosophy of the US Organization in Los Angeles, California, headed by Maulana Karenga, which sought to promote African American cultural unity through the politics of cultural nationalism. The creator of Kwanzaa, Karenga, believed that African Americans were a cultural nation in need of a cultural revolution, based on an African paradigm, with the East African trade language Swahilli as a preferred language, and West African customs,drumming, dancing and dress as key features. Karenga would be responsible for changing Jones’ name to Amiri Baraka and shaping his leadership style and values. Upon returning to Newark, Jones played a crucial role in developing the politics of Black cultural nationalism as he helped usher in a new era of Black politics in Newark. 

 

During the 1967 rebellion, Baraka was violently beaten by the police. Appearing bloodied with a large bandage on his head in national media coverage of the uprising, and handcuffed in a wheelchair, he represented the systemic violence and repression at the hands of the police that had sparked the uprising, and its impact on Black people. Already an internationally known writer, his political persona in Newark was heightened by the uprising.

 

Additionally, the uprising helped to galvanize support for the politics of Black cultural nationalism as mainstream institutions pushed the Black community to embrace more militant stances and to form a parallel set of community-based institutions to meet their own needs. Under Baraka’s leadership in Newark, he and his followers formed the Committee for a United NewArk (CFUN) and the African Free School, which was a community liberation school headed by his wife, Amina Baraka. 

 

Only a few days after the end of the rebellion in July 1967, Newark played host to a Black Power Conference, the first in a series of Black conventions in Newark and part of a broader national convention movement. For Baraka, the convention served as a means to build Black political consciousness and a stepping stone for his own concept of “nation-building.” While Newark was still reeling from the violence of the uprising, the attendants of the convention, which included Rev. Jesse Jackson, Adam Clayton Powell Jr., Maulana Karenga, Robert F. Williams, Phil Hutchings, and H. Rap Brown, debated whether reform or revolution should mark the path ahead. 

 

Baraka’s cultural nationalism was not embraced by all of Newark’s Black leaders. While he was in New York and California, the city’s leadership had established a firm foundation and militant stand against the city’s entrenched white political establishment, through such confrontations as the Parker-Callaghan and Medical School fights. This made it more difficult as Baraka worked to form a united front of Black leaders and organizations to elect black politicians. However, Baraka was able to call together several of the prominent black leaders because of his national status, and new-found celebrity in having been attacked by the police, calling it the United Brothers. The United Brothers brought together Black leaders from across the city and aimed to use their collective power and resources to change electoral politics in Newark. The United Brothers later transformed into CFUN as the organization shifted under Baraka’s influence from focus on the election of Newark’s first Black mayor to embracing a more encompassing form of cultural nationalism. 




Baraka’s call for a “black united front” was informed by his brand of Black cultural nationalism, which emphasized the need for Black self-determination and political as well as cultural revolution. Believing Black culture marked the black community as a nation within a nation, Baraka saw electoral politics as a critical element of the politics of cultural nationalism. He believed it would enable Black self-determination, including the election of the first Black mayor of Newark, and city council as well. 

 

Seeking to create a slate of “community choice” candidates, the 1969 Black and Puerto Rican Political Convention, chaired by Robert Curvin, brought together an even broader set of leaders.  Nevertheless, through his national fundraising for what he called the NewArk Fund and the strong community presence through his organized group of vocal and disciplined followers, Baraka and his followers remained a prominent and not too  subtle feature of the convention. As expected, Kenneth Gibson emerged from the 1969 convention as the “community choice” candidate for mayor, along with candidates for all nine council seats.  Baraka put the force of his organizations and resources behind his campaign, although Gibson, a moderate, did not embrace the politics of cultural nationalism. Nevertheless, Baraka and CFUN played a key role in Gibson’s campaign. Drawing college students from across the tri-state area, Baraka put them to use knocking on doors and registering voters. Additionally, he used this celebrity to attract other notable African Americans to come to Newark to campaign for Gibson, including Jesse Jackson, Harry Belafonte, and Stevie Wonder.

 

The relationship between Baraka and Gibson began to deteriorate shortly after his election. While Baraka believed in the platform formulated during the convention, including the calls for a police review board, Gibson instead took a more conservative approach to governing the city-even, saying that he was the police review board. Additionally, Gibson did not give Baraka the jobs his followers needed. Baraka’s Kawaida Towers project further strained their relationship, a low-to-moderate housing project he hoped to build in Newark’s North Ward, a historically Italian-American community. In the fight, marked by racism and white backlash that ensued over the project, Gibson failed to put his full political support behind Baraka-a decision that marked the end of their tenuous alliance. 

 

As Gibson ran for reelection in 1974, Baraka and CFUN held another political convention and generated a complete slate of city council candidates. However, none of these candidates, including the incumbent councilman for the Central Ward, Dennis Westbrooks, won a seat on the council as part of the Community Choice slate. Thus in 1974, while Newark had both a Black mayor and a Black city council president, Earl Harris, whose political careers had been propelled by CFUN, Baraka’s vision of Newark serving as the first of a series of cities where cultural nationalism paved the way for Black political power and radical changes in the day-to-day lives of urban Black communities had failed. 

 

Gibson, like other black politicians, benefitted from the politics of black cultural nationalism, but their embrace of the ideology was uneven. A political moderate, Gibson saw the principles of Black cultural nationalism as a barrier to winning white votes and support, and he was generally more interested in minor reforms than revolutionary change as promoted by the cultural nationalism. Consequently, while proponents of Black cultural nationalism had helped to get him elected, Gibson would play a role in the downfall of CFUN by his refusal to support Amiri Baraka during the battle over Kawaida Towers. This perpetuated Baraka’s retreat from nationalism of any sort, and his reemergence as a cultural icon who celebrated his embrace of Marxism.

 

References:

Amiri Baraka, The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones 

Robert Curvin, Inside Newark: Decline, Rebellion, and the Search for Transformation

Junius Williams, Unfinished Agenda: Urban Politics in the Era of Black Power 

Komozi Woodard, A Nation Within A Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) and Black Power Politics

 

Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) explains the importance of art for promoting self-consciousness, empowerment, and liberation. –Credit: Henry Hampton Collection, Washington University Libraries

A spoken word performance by children from Amiri Baraka’s Spirit House Movers and Players in Bedford-Stuyvesant, 1968. –Credit: PBS Thirteen

Black Power Manifesto and Resolutions

Black Power Manifesto and Resolutions

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A report submitted by the Continutations Committee of the National Conference on Black Power titled “Black Power Manifesto and Resolutions.” The manifesto and resolutions were based on conversations and workshops at the conference held in Newark from July 20-23, 1967. –Credit: Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture

Amiri Baraka describes cultural nationalism in Newark and the emergence of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN) and the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP). –Credit: Henry Hampton Collection, Washington University Libraries

Black NewArk (Jan-Feb 1974)

Black NewArk (Jan-Feb 1974)

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Volume 3, Number 1 of the CFUN newspaper, Black NewArk, published in January-February 1974. This edition of the paper includes coverage of the 1974 Citywide Political Convention. — Credit: NYU Tamiment Library

Congress of African People Booklet

Congress of African People Booklet

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Promotional booklet for the Congress of Afrikan People, Black nationalist group led by Amiri Baraka. –Credit: Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University

Amina Baraka and Estelle David describe how their relationship with Ken Gibson changed once he was elected. –Credit: Junius Williams Collection

Komozi Woodard describes the decline of CFUN following the the unsuccessful struggle to build Kawaida Towers. –Credit: Junius Williams Collection

Explore The Archives

  • Amiri Baraka Discusses the Formation of the Congress of Afrikan People

    Clip from a 2009 interview with Amiri Baraka, conducted by Newark scholar and civil rights veteran Robert Curvin, in which Baraka describes the formation of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP). — Credit: The Estate of Robert Curvin
  • Amiri Baraka Interview (1972)

    A 1972 interview with Amiri Baraka by Tony Brown on the television program Black Journal. Baraka discusses the National Black Political Convention, which had been held in Gary, IN. –Credit: AfroMarxist
  • Estelle David Discusses the Role of Women in the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN)

    Clip from a panel discussion during the “The 1967 Newark Rebellion: Power and Politics, Before and After,” a two-day conference held in the Paul Robeson Campus Center at Rutgers University-Newark on October 1, 2016. In this clip, Estelle David describes the roles that women played in the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN) and the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP).
  • Baraka Explains the Rebellion

    Amiri Baraka explaining his experinces of the 1967 Newark Rebellion and what he sees as its role in easing racial segregation in Newark. –Credit: Henry Hampton Collection, Washington University Libraries
  • Amiri Baraka Discusses Black Power Conference

    Amiri Baraka discusses his experience of the 1967 Black Power Conference. –Credit: Henry Hampton Collection, Washington University Libraries
  • Larry Hamm Describes His First Encounter with Amiri Baraka

    Clip from an interview with community organizer Larry Hamm, conducted by Newark scholar and civil rights veteran Robert Curvin. In this clip, Hamm describes his first encounter with Amiri Baraka in Newark in 1971. — Credit: The Estate of Robert Curvin
  • Kwanzaa Celebration Inside the Hekalu, 3

    A view from inside the Hekalu, the headquarters of the Committee For Unified Newark, at 502 High Street. The CFUN headquarters was a hub for political and cultural expression and nationalism, regularly hosting concerts, performances, and film screenings grounded in the politics of liberation and nationalism. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Kwanzaa Celebration Inside the Hekalu, 4

    A view from inside the Hekalu, the headquarters of the Committee For Unified Newark, at 502 High Street. The CFUN headquarters was a hub for political and cultural expression and nationalism, regularly hosting concerts, performances, and film screenings grounded in the politics of liberation and nationalism. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Kwanzaa Celebration Inside the Hekalu, 5

    A view from inside the Hekalu, the headquarters of the Committee For Unified Newark, at 502 High Street. The CFUN headquarters was a hub for political and cultural expression and nationalism, regularly hosting concerts, performances, and film screenings grounded in the politics of liberation and nationalism. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Gathering at the Hekalu

    A view inside the headquarters of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN) at 502 High Street known as the “Hekalu.” — Credit: Amiri Baraka Papers; Rare Book and Manuscript Library; Columbia University
  • Amiri Baraka at Press Conference (1971)

    Amiri Baraka speaks at a press conference on June 16, 1971. –Credit: Dwight J. Johnson/The Star-Ledger
  • Amirir Baraka on Picket Line (1974)

    Amiri Baraka walks a picket line outside of the Miracle 21 store in Newark during a protest on August 29, 1974. –Credit: Vic Yepello/The Star-Ledger
  • Soul Session Flyer (1974)

    Flyer for a Soul Session, hosted by Amiri Baraka and the Committee For Unified Newark at the Hekalu Mwalimu (“Temple of the Teacher”), 13 Belmont Avenue. Baraka’s organization hosted Soul Sessions every Sunday, and incorporated music, poetry, and theatre with political discussion.
  • CAP Flyer for Black and Puerto Rican Poetry Event (1975)

    Flyer for a Black and Puerto Rican Poetry event sponsored by the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP) in New York City on May 24, 1975. The Congress of Afrikan People was founded in 1970 as a Pan-African, nationalist organization that promoted black political empowerment, with its headquarters in Newark, NJ.
  • CAP Flyer for Harry Haywood Event (1976)

    Flyer for an event hosted by the Congress of Afrikan People, featuring Black communist organizer Harry Haywood, on May 23, 1976. The Congress of Afrikan People was founded in 1970 as a Pan-African, nationalist organization that promoted black political empowerment, with its headquarters in Newark, NJ.
  • CAP Flyer for Pan Afrikan Reception in Harlem

    Flyer for a “Pan-Afrikan Reception,” featuring leaders in African liberation struggles and sponsored by the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP) in New York City. The Congress of Afrikan People was founded in 1970 as a Pan-African, nationalist organization that promoted black political empowerment, with its headquarters in Newark, NJ.
  • Flyer for Film Showing at Hekalu (1974)

    Flyer for a 1974 screening of the film “10 Days That Shook the World,” sponsored by the New Jersey Black Assembly at the Hekalu Mwalimu. The Hekalu Mwalimu was a cultural center owned by Amiri Baraka’s Congress of Afrikan People (CAP). — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Flyer for Malcolm X Film Discussion at Hekalu (1976)

    Flyer for a 1976 screening of a film on Malcolm X titled “Struggle for Freedom,” sponsored by the Congress of Afrikan People. The Congress of Afrikan People was founded in 1970 as a Pan-African, nationalist organization that promoted black political empowerment, with its headquarters in Newark, NJ. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Flyer to Support Kawaida Bail Fund (1974)

    Flyer from 1974, urging support for the Kawaida Bail Fund, used to bail out members of the Committee For Unified Newark and Congress of Afrikan People. Amiri Baraka’s cultural nationalist organizations were the target of intense scrutiny and repression from the Newark Police Department, leading to several instances of police intimidation and violence. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Mwanamke Mwananchi (The Nationalist Woman) by Mumininas of CFUN

    Pamphlet distributed by the Mumininas of the Committee For Unified NewArk on the roles of women in a nationalist organization. — Credit: Komozi Woodard
  • CFUN Newsletter- Words from Imamu

    An undated newsletter from the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN) carrying a message from Imamu Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) regarding government surveillance and infiltration of nationalist organizations. The FBI’s Counterintelligence Program (COINTELPRO) actively surveilled, infiltrated, and sought to disrupt and destroy civil rights and black power organizations in the 1960s.
  • Committee For Unified Newark Pamphlet (1972)

    Pamphlet distributed by the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN) in 1972, outlining the major programs, projects, teachings, and ideologies of the organization. CFUN was a cultural nationalist organization established in 1968 by Amiri Baraka aimed at achieving Black political power in Newark.
  • Strategy and Tactics of a Pan African Nationalist Party (1972)

    Booklet written by Amiri Baraka, titled “Strategy and Tactics of a Pan African Nationalist Party,” and published by the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN). CFUN was a cultural nationalist organization established in 1968 by Amiri Baraka aimed at achieving Black political power in Newark.
  • "Ujamaa, Small Business, Socialism, and Capitalism" (CFUN Newsletter)

    Newsletter from Amiri Baraka and Committee For Unified Newark on “Ujamaa, Small Business, Socialism, and Capitalism.” CFUN was a cultural nationalist organization established in 1968 by Amiri Baraka aimed at achieving Black political power in Newark.
  • "Kawaida Customs and Concepts" (CFUN Newsletter)

    Newsletter from Amiri Baraka and Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN) on the customs and concepts of “Kawaida,” a cultural nationalist ideology and movement. CFUN was a cultural nationalist organization established in 1968 by Amiri Baraka aimed at achieving Black political power in Newark.
  • CFUN Pamphlet on Marcus Garvey

    Pamphlet distributed by Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), providing a brief history of Marcus Garvey and his influence on Black nationalism. CFUN was a cultural nationalist organization established in 1968 by Amiri Baraka aimed at achieving Black political power in Newark.
  • CFUN Pamphlet on Marcus Garvey

    Newsletter from Amiri Baraka and the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), covering the recent ouster of the principal and vice principal of the Robert Treat School. CFUN was largely responsible for their removal, and the appointment of black principal Eugene Campbell, who later became the first black superintendent of Newark Public Schools.
  • CAP Flyer for Stop Killer Cops Forum (1975)

    Flyer for a 1975 forum on the Congress of Afrikan People’s “Stop Killer Cops” program, which organized Black and Puerto Rican people to resist police brutality. The Congress of Afrikan People was founded in 1970 as a Pan-African, nationalist organization that promoted black political empowerment, with its headquarters in Newark, NJ. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • CAP Flyer for Worker's Solidarity Day (1975)

    Flyer for a 1975 program, rally, and demonstration to commemorate Workers’ Solidarity Day, sponsored by the Congress of Afrikan People.The Congress of Afrikan People was founded in 1970 as a Pan-African, nationalist organization that promoted black political empowerment, with its headquarters in Newark, NJ. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • CFUN Flyer for February 1974 Events

    Flyer for events sponsored by the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN) in February 1974. CFUN was a cultural nationalist organization established in 1968 by Amiri Baraka aimed at achieving Black political power in Newark. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Flyer for Afrikan Free School Awards (1974)

    Flyer for an awards ceremony and fundraising event for the Afrikan Free School, an independent school established by Amina Baraka in 1967. One of the Committee For Unified Newark’s (CFUN) most successful program, the African Free School was initially formed to improve literacy for children in Newark, and grew to earn national recognition. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Flyer for Black Writer's Conference (1978)

    Flyer for a 1978 conference on “Black Writing” at Rutgers University-Newark, featuring Richard Wesley, Nathan Heard, Claude Brown, and Amiri Baraka. The conference was sponsored by “Unity and Struggle,” the newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League, a political organization formerly known as the Congress of Afrikan People. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • CAP Flyer for November 1975 Events

    Flyer for upcoming events sponsored by the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP) in November 1975. The Congress of Afrikan People was founded in 1970 as a Pan-African, nationalist organization that promoted black political empowerment, with its headquarters in Newark, NJ. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Flyer for Film Showing at Hekalu (1974)

    Flyer for a 1974 screening of the film “10 Days That Shook the World,” sponsored by the New Jersey Black Assembly at the Hekalu Mwalimu. The Hekalu Mwalimu was a cultural center owned by Amiri Baraka’s Congress of Afrikan People (CAP). — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • CFUN Newsletter (On FBI Surveillance)

    Newsletter from Amiri Baraka and the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), on the surveillance and counterintelligence efforts of the FBI and Justice Department to “destroy” the organization. CFUN was a cultural nationalist organization established in 1968 by Amiri Baraka aimed at achieving Black political power in Newark.
  • CFUN Proposal for Experimental College

    Educational Proposal created by the Committee For Unified Newark to estbablish an “Experimental College” in Newark’s Black community. CFUN was a cultural nationalist organization established in 1968 by Amiri Baraka aimed at achieving Black political power in Newark.
 

Kawaida Towers

In the early 1970s, after having helped Mayor Kenneth Gibson to become the first black mayor of Newark and established several successful community programs and organizations, Amiri Baraka turned his gaze to large-scale community development with the goal of transforming the Central Ward into a “New Ark.” Leveraging the transformation of the Committee for a United NewArk (CFUN) into the Newark branch of the national organization, the Congress of African People (CAP), Baraka shifted its organizational focus to social transformation through the development of community housing, cooperative businesses, and a host of neighborhood institutions. The first target for Baraka’s urban development plan was a tract of urban renewal land in the Central Ward known as NJR-32. To Baraka and CFUN, their plan for NJR-32 was “a black nationalist alternative to the white supremacist policy of urban renewal.” 

 

While NJR-32 was delayed by the Newark Housing Authority, CFUN and its allies found a different plot of land to develop housing on in the meantime. In 1972, Amiri Baraka unveiled plans to build housing for low- and moderate-income residents at the corner of Lincoln Avenue and Delevan Street in the North Ward. On the land in this predominantly Italian American neighborhood, CFUN planned to develop a $6.5 million, 16-floor building with over 200 apartment units, along with a theatre, hobby shop, and other community resources for residents. The name of the project, Kawaida Towers, was derived from the cultural nationalist doctrine of Kawaida, meaning “tradition and reason.” Baraka assembled an impressive interracial team of architects, lawyers, and contractors and broke ground on the project in July 1972.

 

However, it soon became clear that Kawaida Towers would not be built without a fight from white residents of the North Ward. Though the project had been granted tax abatement by the city council with initial cooperation from North Ward City Councilman Frank Megaro, and initially gained the support of Councilman-at-Large Ralph Villani and State Senator Anthony Imperiale, pickets and protests at the construction site began just days after the ceremonial groundbreaking in October 1972.  

The cause of the sudden emergence of white backlash was North Ward Democratic Party Chairman Steve Adubato, who had used the ceremonial groundbreaking as a platform to publicly oppose the project. With Adubato, a political power broker in the city publicly challenging the project, the battle lines were drawn. Anthony Imperiale shifted sides and seized the opportunity to lead a public assault against Kawaida Towers by mobilizing members of his North Ward Citizens Committee, along with the Newark Police Department, to hold daily protests at the construction site. Imperiale’s protests quickly swelled as hundreds of white protestors joined in the fray, threatening that “blood would run in the streets.”

While the crowds of white protestors, aided by Newark police, blocked construction workers from getting to the site, Imperiale and fellow North Ward resident John Cervase filed a lawsuit against the development. In court, the two obstructionists “fabricated technical objections” to the height of the building and the legality of the tax abatement to “disguise their racial objection,” historian and CFUN member Komozi Woodard wrote. Though soundly defeated in court by the legal defense of Kawaida Towers, featuring renowned Attorney Ray Brown, the opposition was taken up by the City Council, who voted to rescind the tax abatement in November 1972. Empowered by the City Council vote, the mobs at the construction site escalated their violence, continuing to block construction workers from entering the site, shouting racial slurs, and attacking black laborers as they tried to get to work.  

Though supported by an array of religious, labor, and political organizations, Baraka and CFUN struggled to compete with the numbers and force that Imperiale and Adubato had mobilized in the North Ward in opposition to the project. Furthermore, Mayor Ken Gibson chose mainly to stay on the sidelines of the turmoil and had little or no control over the police department that was playing a central role in the conflict. Police Director John Redden resigned during the conflict, blaming Baraka for fomenting the racially charged opposition to the housing project. Gibson appointed the first black Police Director who was unable to control the police officers as well. Violence spread from the construction site, as white mobs attacked black people in the North Ward. Black students were attacked in school, and shotgun blasts were fired into CFUN headquarters at 502 High Street.

The violent opposition to Kawaida Towers proved insurmountable for Baraka and CFUN. Despite Mayor Gibson and City Councilman Earl Harris both having benefited from Baraka’s support in the 1970 election, both failed to support Baraka and further enabled the opposition to the project. Illustrating the dismay of supporters of Kawaida Towers, CFUN member Saidi Nguvu said, “we had followed the law, and everything was right, but they refused to build it, and they physically attacked us.” 

By 1974, Kawaida Towers had been defeated, and in the following year, so too were the plans for NJR-32. With these crushing defeats, the conceptualization of Black cultural nationalism as a means to achieve Black Power as conceived by Baraka, CFUN, and CAP received a deathblow. In the following months, the funding for Kawaida Towers, NJR-32, and the African Free School was withdrawn, and the programs were dissolved. The Newark Housing Authority demolished the buildings that housed CFUN’s theatre and television studio training program, the headquarters of the National Black Assembly, the African Liberation Support Committee, and the classrooms of the African Free School. In 1976, the $1.5 million foundation of Kawaida Towers was buried by the New Jersey Housing Finance Agency.

“The housing development would have institutionalized Baraka at another level in the pantheon of political power,” Junius Williams later reflected. “Along with the other social and educational programs he had designed and implemented, he would have become a formidable force in Newark at yet another level of power—he would have transferred from People Power to power based on position and money.”

References:

Robert Curvin, Inside Newark: Decline, Rebellion, and the Search for Transformation

Junius Williams, Unfinished Agenda: Urban Politics in the Era of Black Power

Komozi Woodard, A Nation Within A Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) and Black Power Politics

Amiri Baraka discusses the fight over the construction of Kawaida Towers, a multi-family housing project he planned to build in the North Ward, in a 2009 oral history with Robert Curvin. — Credit: The Estate of Robert Curvin

Kawaida Towers Rendering (1972)

Kawaida Towers Rendering (1972)

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Artist rendering of the Kawaida Towers apartment building, 1972. –Credit: The Star-Ledger

North Ward Residents Block Construction Site (1972)

North Ward Residents Block Construction Site (1972)

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A mob of North Ward residents attempt to block the entrance of the Kawaida Towers construction site, while Oscar Mersier (center) and other Black laborers try to enter with a police escort on November 22, 1972. —Credit: Dwight J. Johnson/The Star-Ledger

Black New Ark (March 1973)

Black New Ark (March 1973)

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Volume 2, Number 3 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in March 1973. The monthly newspaper provided continuous coverage of the fight over Kawaida Towers. — Credit: NYU Tamiment Library

Clip from an interview with North Ward vigilante and politician Anthony Imperiale, in which he discusses his opposition to the construction of Kawaida Towers. — Credit: Henry Hampton Collection, Washington University Libraries

Komozi Woodard reflects on the struggle over Kawaida Towers and its impact on Baraka and CFUN. –Credit: Junius Williams Collection

Explore The Archives

  • NJR-32 Project Area Committee Booklet

    The Project Area Committee was a community planning agency involved in the urban renewal site R-32 (Newark, NJ). –Credit: Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University
  • Protestors Clash Over Kawaida Towers

    Groups of demonstrators are separated by Newark Police officers and fences during a protest over the construction of the Kawaida Towers in the North Ward. Kawaida Towers, a communal public housing project conceived by Amiri Baraka, was met with fierce opposition in the predominantly white North Ward where it was supposed to be constructed. — Credit: Amiri Baraka Papers, Columbia University Libraries
  • Anthony Imperiale and Supporters At Kawaida Towers Construction Site

    Assemblyman Anthony Imperiale, the Essex County independent who is leading the opposition to construction of the controversial Kawaida Towers housing project discusses the project on Tuesday, Nov. 21, 1972 in Newark. (AP Photo)
  • Amiri Baraka Speaks to Reporters at Kawaida Towers Construction Site (1973)

    “Imamu Amiri Baraka speaks to reporters at a rally in support of the controversial Kawaida Towers housing project in Newark” on March 5, 1973. — Credit: Bettmann Photo
  • Anthony Imperiale Faces Kawaida Towers Supporters (1973)

    “New Jersey assemblyman Anthony Imperiale (left) faces black supporters of the controversial Kawaida Towers housing project in Newark’s mainly white North Ward, March 5th. Behind and resting a hand on a barrier is Imamu Amiri Baraka (also known as Leroi Jones), poet, playwright, and black nationalist, who has been a leader of black supporters of the high rise housing. Imperiale has served as leader of white demonstrators opposed to black nationalist sponsorship of the housing. The project has been virtually halted since November by demonstrators.” — Credit: Bettmann Photo
  • Protests at Kawaida Construction Site (Nov 27, 1973)

    “Flag-carrying demonstrators march in front of Kawaida Towers work site here 2/27, the low and middle-income highrise in Newark’s mainly white North Ward. The black-sponsored project has added another chapter to the racial strife plaguing New Jersey’s most populous city.”
  • Vandalism at the Kawaida Towers Construction Site (Jan 6, 1973)

    Vandalism on signs at buildings at the construction site of Kawaida Towers in Newark’s North Ward, reading: “Kawaida Means Trouble”; “We Don’t Want Slums”; “Boot Hill: RIP North Ward.” The multi-family housing project proposed by Amiri Baraka was met with fierce resistance from the North Ward’s predominantly white population and was never completed.
  • Protests at Kawaida Construction Site (Feb 22, 1973)

    “Crowd moves into street and away from alley opposite Kawaida Towers construction site after brawl between some two dozen white opponents of the apartment and six black supporters. Two policemen were injured and three blacks were arrested.”
  • Picketers Block Workers at Kawaida Towers Construction Site

    “Newark police attempted 11/27 to escort laborers through a crowd of 300 angry pickets to the North Ward building site of Kawaida Towers, a high rise backed by black nationalist Imamu Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones). The workers left after two tries at getting them through the crowd failed.”
  • Anthony Imperiale and Amiri Baraka at Meeting (1972)

    Assemblyman Anthony Imperiale and poet Imamu Amiri Baraka (holding microphone) both arrive at a meeting regarding the Kawaida Towers housing project on Nov. 10,1972 in Newark. (AP Photo)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (March 6, 1973)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida on March 6, 1973 criticizing the National Teamsters Union for supporting white opposition to the construction of Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (March 9, 1973)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida on March 9, 1973 criticizing labor union opposition to the construction of Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release- Tindall Conspires Against Black Unity (March 9, 1973)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida on March 9, 1973 criticizing Daniel Tindall for his statements about Kawaida Towers. Tindall had wrongfully criticized Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, for not having a Black architect design the building. Majenzi Kuumba, a Black architect, worked on the design of the project. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (March 20, 1973)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida on March 20, 1973 describing the various individuals and organizations that opposed the construction of Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (July 1973)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida in July 1973 describing physical attacks upon members of the Temple of Kawaida and Black laborers at the construction of Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release on George Richardson

    Undated press release issued by Komozi Woodard of Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida criticizing George Richardson’s opposition to the construction of Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by opposition from white residents and politicians, along with some Black officials. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Extracts from Court Decision in Cervase and Imperiale v Kawaida Towers, Inc (July 10, 1973)

    Excerpts from the July 10, 1973 Superior Court of New Jersey decision in John Cervase and Anthony Imperiale v Kawaida Towers, Inc. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians, in and out of the courts. — Credit: Seton Hall University Libraries
  • Letter from Amiri Baraka to North Ward Clergy (Dec 13, 1972)

    Letter from Amiri Baraka to members of the North Ward Clergy on December 13, 1972, explaining the nature of his plans for Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: Seton Hall University Libraries
  • Letter from Clergy in Support of Kawaida Towers (undated)

    Undated letter from Newark clergy urging the support of their congregations for the Kawaida Towers housing project. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: Seton Hall University Libraries
  • National Black Assembly Kawaida Towers Inquiry (April 16, 1973)

    Excerpt from an inquiry into Kawaida Towers, held by the National Black Assembly Law and Justice Committee on April 16, 1973. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: Seton Hall University Libraries
  • Imperiale and Baraka (1971)

    Anthony Imperiale (L) and Amiri Baraka (R) talk outside before a meeting at Barringer High School, OCtober 6, 1971. —Credit: Joseph Baker/The Star-Ledger
  • Amiri Baraka at City Council (1972)

    Amiri Baraka addresses Newark City Council regarding Kawaida Towers on November 10, 1972. –Credit: Dwight D. Johnson/The Star-Ledger
  • Pickets at Kawaida Towers (1972)

    White protestors walk a picket line at the construction site of Kawaida Towers on November 24, 1972. The protestors often carried racist signs, like the one seen here reading “Build it in Africa.” –Credit: Dwight Johnson/The Star-Ledger
  • Pickets at Kawaida Towers (1972)

    White protestors walk a picket line at the construction site of Kawaida Towers on November 24, 1972. The protestors often carried racist signs, while accusing Baraka and Kawaida Towers of racism. –Credit: Dwight Johnson/The Star-Ledger
  • Pickets at Carpenters Union (1973)

    “Supporters of the Kawaida Towers picket the Essex County and Vicinity District Council of Carpenters and Millwrights building in Irvington,” March 12, 1973. –Credit: Bill Clare/The Star-Ledger
  • Rally at Kawaida Construction Site (1973)

    Amiri Baraka (L) and supporters of the Kawaida Towers gather to welcome workers to the construction site on March 5, 1973. –Credit: Bill Clare/The Star-Ledger
  • Steve Adubato at Kawaida Site (1972)

    North Ward politician Steve Adubato (L) confronts construction worker Oscar Mersier (R) during a demonstration at the Kawaida Towers site on November 22, 1972. –Credit: The Star-Ledger
  • Anthony Carrino Campaign Flyer on Kawaida Towers (1974)

    Campaign flyer for North Ward City Council candidate Anthony Carrino in 1974, stating his positions on the proposed Kawaida Towers housing project in the North Ward. Kawaida Towers, a communal public housing project conceived by Amiri Baraka, was met with fierce opposition in the predominantly white North Ward where it was supposed to be constructed. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Campaign Flyer Against Marie Villani (1978)

    Campaign flyer from the 1978 Newark City Council election, opposing the re-election of Marie Villani, because she voted in favor of the Kawaida Towers housing project in the North Ward. Kawaida Towers, a communal public housing project conceived by Amiri Baraka, was met with fierce opposition in the predominantly white North Ward where it was supposed to be constructed. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • Frank Megaro Campaign Flyer on Kawaida Towers (1974)

    Campaign flyer for North Ward City Council candidate Frank Megaro in 1974, stating his positions on the proposed Kawaida Towers housing project in the North Ward. Kawaida Towers, a communal public housing project conceived by Amiri Baraka, was met with fierce opposition in the predominantly white North Ward where it was supposed to be constructed. — Credit: Newark Public Library
  • News and Views of Anthony Imperiale (1973)

    Article written by State Assemblyman Anthony Imperiale, in which he explains his opposition to the Kawaida Towers housing project. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: Seton Hall University Libraries
  • North Ward Clergy Group Press Release on Kawaida Towers (undated)

    Press release issued by the North Ward Clergy Group on January 1, 1973, providing the results of their fact-finding about the Kawaida Towers housing project. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: Seton Hall University Libraries
  • North Ward Clergy Group Proposal for Kawaida-Community Liaison (March 5, 1973)

    Letter from the North Ward Clergy Group on March 5, 1973, regarding their proposed Kawaida-Community Liaison Program. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: Seton Hall University Libraries
  • Kawaida Towers and the Road to the NewArk

    Brief article written around 1974 by a member of the Committee For Unified Newark providing an overview and analysis of the struggle to build Kawaida Towers. The article explains the political significance of the development of Kawaida Towers for CFUN and CAP’s larger vision of community development and political power.
  • Roster of People Involved with Kawaida Towers

    Roster of individuals involved in the struggle over the construction of Kawaida Towers, compiled by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida. The roster includes an array of actors, including lawyers, builders, politicians, and journalists. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida- Chronology of Kawaida Towers (1973)

    Timeline of events during the struggle over the construction of Kawaida Towers, compiled by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida. The timeline spans from 1971-1973 and covers the major conflicts over Kawaida Towers, the proposed public housing project in the predominantly white North Ward. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (Oct 8, 1972)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida on October 8, 1972 to announce the groundbreaking ceremonies for Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers was a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (Nov 8, 1972)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida on November 8, 1972 describing the need and plans for Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers was a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release from Amiri Baraka (Nov 27, 1972)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka on November 27, 1972 criticizing the lack of police protection from mob violence at the construction site of Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (Nov 27, 1972)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida on November 27, 1972 criticizing the lack of police protection for the construction of Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (1972)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida in late 1972 announcing the ruling of Judge Irwin Kimmelman in favor of tax abatement for Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (Feb 22, 1973)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida on February 22, 1973 describing acts of police brutality at the construction site of Kawaida Towers. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
  • Temple of Kawaida Press Release (March 1973)

    Press release issued by Amiri Baraka’s Temple of Kawaida in March 1973 describing acts of mob violence against Black laborers and members of the Temple of Kawaida at the Kawaida Towers construction site. Kawaida Towers, a high-rise housing project that Baraka planned to build in Newark’s predominantly white North Ward, was met by fierce opposition from white residents and politicians. — Credit: The Black Power Movement, Pt. 1 (microfilm)
 

Collection of Baraka’s Newspapers

  • Black New Ark Apr 1968

    The first edition of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in April 1968. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (April 1972)

    Volume 1, Number 5 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in April 1972. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (September 1972)

    Volume 1, Number 9 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in September 1972. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation. — Credit: NYU Tamiment Library
  • Black New Ark (January 1973)

    Volume 2, Number 1 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in January 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (February 1973)

    Volume 2, Number 2 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in February 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (March 1973)

    Volume 2, Number 3 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in March 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (June 1973)

    Volume 2, Number 6 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in June 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (July 1973)

    Volume 2, Number 7 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in July 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (August 1973)

    Volume 2, Number 8 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in August 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (September 1973, First Edition)

    Volume 2, Number 9 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in September 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (April 1975, Second Edition)

    Volume 4, Number 6 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in April 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (May 1975)

    Volume 4, Number 7 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in May 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (June 1975, First Edition)

    Volume 4, Number 8 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in June 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (June 1975, Second Edition)

    Volume 4, Number 9 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in June 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (August 1975)

    Volume 4, Number 11 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in August 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (August-September 1975)

    Volume 4, Number 12 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in August-September 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (October 1975, First Edition)

    Volume 4, Number 13 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in October 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (October 1975, Second Edition)

    Volume 4, Number 14 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in October 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (November 1975, First Edition)

    Volume 4, Number 15 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in November 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (November 1975, Second Edition)

    Volume 4, Number 16 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in November 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (September 1973, Second Edition)

    Volume 2, Number 10 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in September 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (October 1973)

    Volume 2, Number 11 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in October 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (November 1973, First Edition)

    Volume 2, Number 12 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in November 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (November 1973, Second Edition)

    Volume 2, Number 13 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in November 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (December 1973)

    Volume 2, Number 14 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in December 1973. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Black New Ark (January-February 1974)

    Volume 3, Number 1 of Black NewArk, the local newspaper of the Committee For Unified Newark (CFUN), published in January-February 1974. Black NewArk was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation. This was the final edition of Black NewArk before the newspaper changed to Unity and Struggle.
  • Unity and Struggle (February-March, 1974)

    Volume 3, Number 2 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in February-March 1974. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation. This was the first edition of the national newspaper, after replacing the local Black NewArk.
  • Unity and Struggle (March 1974)

    Volume 3, Number 3 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in March 1974. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (May 1974)

    Volume 3, Number 5 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in May 1974. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (June 1974)

    Volume 3, Number 6 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in June 1974. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (January 1976)

    Volume 5, Number 1 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in January 1976. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (February 1976)

    Volume 5, Number 2 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in February 1976. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (March 1976)

    Volume 5, Number 3 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in March 1976. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (April 1976)

    Volume 5, Number 4 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in April 1976. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (May 1976)

    Volume 5, Number 5 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in May 1976. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (June 1976)

    Volume 5, Number 6 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League (formerly the Congress of Afrikan People), published in June 1976. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (October 1976)

    Volume 5, Number 7-10 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League (formerly the Congress of Afrikan People), published in October 1976. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (May-June 1977)

    Volume 6, Number 1-6 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League (formerly the Congress of Afrikan People), published in June 1977. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (January 1978)

    Volume 7, Number 1 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League (formerly the Congress of Afrikan People), published in January 1978. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (August 1974)

    Volume 3, Number 8 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in August 1974. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (October 1974, First Edition)

    Volume 3, Number 10 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in October 1974. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (October 1974, Second Edition)

    Volume 3, Number 11 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in October 1974. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (November 1974)

    Volume 3, Number 12 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in November 1974. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (December 1974)

    Volume 3, Number 13 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in December 1974. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (December 1974-January 1975)

    Volume 4, Number 1 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in December 1974-January 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (January 1975, Second Edition)

    Volume 4, Number 2 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in January 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (February 1975)

    Volume 4, Number 3 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in February 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (March 1975)

    Volume 4, Number 4 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in March 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (April 1975, First Edition)

    Volume 4, Number 5 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Congress of Afrikan People (CAP), published in April 1975. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (April 1978)

    Volume 7, Number 2-4 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League (formerly the Congress of Afrikan People), published in April 1978. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (July 1978)

    Volume 7, Number 7 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League (formerly the Congress of Afrikan People), published in July 1978. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (September-October 1978)

    Volume 7, Number 8-10 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League (formerly the Congress of Afrikan People), published in October 1978. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (February 1979)

    Volume 8, Number 1-2 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League (formerly the Congress of Afrikan People), published in February 1979. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.
  • Unity and Struggle (V 8, No 4-9 September 1979)

    Volume 8, Number 4-9 of Unity and Struggle, the national newspaper of the Revolutionary Communist League (formerly the Congress of Afrikan People), published in September 1979. Unity and Struggle was one of several media outlets developed by Amiri Baraka to promote Black cultural nationalism in Newark and the nation.